Q. How do I determine the level of evidence of an article?
Johns Hopkins Nursing EBP: Levels of Evidence
Experimental study, randomized controlled trial (RCT)
Systematic review of RCTs, with or without meta-analysis
Systematic review of a combination of RCTs and quasi-experimental, or quasi-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis.
Systematic review of a combination of RCTs, quasi-experimental and non-experimental, or non-experimental studies only, with or without meta-analysis.
Qualitative study or systematic review, with or without meta-analysis
Opinion of respected authorities and/or nationally recognized expert committees/consensus panels based on scientific evidence.
- Clinical practice guidelines
- Consensus panels
Based on experiential and non-research evidence.
- Literature reviews
- Quality improvement, program or financial evaluation
- Case reports
- Opinion of nationally recognized expert(s) based on experiential evidence
From Johns Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice : Models and Guidelines
Dearholt, S., Dang, Deborah, & Sigma Theta Tau International. (2012). Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-based Practice : Models and Guidelines.
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